Institutions are enduring systems of social constraint on behavior, which promote realization of order in society. The graduate seminar investigates emergence, maintenance, and change in informal political institutions -- those not reflected in formal authoritative rules of governance, but which nontheless organize political action. Its focus is both theoretical and on different sorts of institutions in a variety of empirical settings. It is a point of departure for developing research on this topic, applicable to any particular empirical political science field. instructor: Manion.